Consciousness-Based EducationDeveloping the full potential of the brain and unfolding the inner genius of every student

A Comprehensive List of Findings and References

Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program Relevant to Educational Improvement

The following are research findings on the Transcendental Meditation programme that are significant for improving the effectiveness of education. The numbers in parentheses after the finding refer to the references in the original research papers, which are listed below.

Increased Intelligence, Learning Ability, and Intellectual Performance

Increased Intelligence (1-7)
Increased Learning Ability (8-9)
Improved Memory (9-10)
Accelerated Cognitive Development in Children (11-13)
Improved Cognitive Flexibility (9-10)
Increased Efficiency of Concept Learning (8)
Faster Processing of Cognitively Complex Information (14)
Broader Comprehension and Improved Ability to Focus Attention—Increased Field Independence (4, 13, 15)
Cognitive Orientation towards Positive Values (16)
Improved Problem-Solving Ability (2)

Improved Academic Performance and Academic Orientation

Improved Academic Performance at the Elementary, Secondary, College, and Postgraduate Levels (17-20)
Improved Standardized Test Scores on General Academic Achievement, Social Studies, Literary Materials, Reading, Mathematics, Language, and Work Study Skills (17-18)

Increased Creativity

Enhanced Creativity (2, 5, 21)
Increased Innovation (2)

Higher Levels of Brain Functioning

Mobilization of the Hidden Reserves of the Brain: Wider Distribution of the Brains Response to Sensory Input (22)
    - Increased Neurological Efficiency:
       - Increased Efficiency of Information Transfer in the Brain (14, 23-28)
       - Improved Spinal Reflex Activity (29, 30)
       - Improvements in Reaction-Time Measures Correlated with Intelligence (7)
    - Greater Adaptability of Brain Functioning (31)
    - Faster Processing of Cognitively Complex Information in the Elderly (9)
Increased Efficiency and Decreased Age-Related Deterioration of Cognitive Information Processing as Measured by Event-Related Potentials (14)
    - Correlations Found in Subjects Practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programmes:
       - Between High EEG Coherence, Higher States of Consciousness, and High Levels of Creativity (32)
       - Between High EEG Coherence, Neurological Efficiency, and Flexibility of Concept Learning (8)
       - Between High EEG Coherence, High Levels of Principled Moral Reasoning, and a Unified Cosmic Perspective on Life (33)

Improved Mind-Body Coordination and Athletic Performance

Faster Reactions (34-36)
Increased Psychomotor Speed (37)
Improved Athletic Performance: Speed, Agility, Reaction Time, Cardiovascular Efficiency (106, 107)

Increased Organizational Ability and Efficiency

Increased Time Competence: Increased Ability to Think and Act Efficiently in the Present (38-40)
Increased Efficiency and Productivity (41, 42)
Increased Employee Effectiveness (42)
Decreased Tendency to Procrastinate (43)

Increased Energy and Dynamism

Increased Energy and Enthusiasm (2, 42, 44)
Increased Physical and Mental Well-Being (9, 45-47)
Decreased Fatigue (42)

Improved Health

Lower Health Insurance Utilization Rates: Significantly Fewer Hospital Inpatient Days, and Outpatient Visits in All Age Categories; Fewer Inpatient Admissions for All Major Categories of Disease (47)
Longitudinal Reduction in Health Care Costs (48)
Improved Self-Health Rating (9, 42, 45, 46, 49)
Reduced Blood Pressure in Adolescents (102)
Increased Integration of Personality
Increased Self-Actualization: Increased Integration, Unity, and Wholeness of Personality (38-40)
Uniquely Effective Means of Increasing Self-Actualization (40)
Uniquely High Scores on Self-Development in Advanced Participants in the Transcendental Meditation programme (50)
Orientation towards Positive Values: Better Recall for Positive than Negative Words; Lower Recognition Thresholds for Positive Words than Negative Words; More Positive Appraisal of Others (16)
Increased Inner-Directedness: Greater Independence and Self-Supportiveness (38-40)
Increased Autonomy and Independence (2, 40, 50)
Less Sensitivity to Criticism (51)
Enhanced Self-Concept (52)
Enhanced Self-Regard and Self-Esteem (2, 51, 53, 54)
Enhanced Inner Well-Being (9)
Increased Emotional Stability (43, 55, 56)
Increased Emotional Maturity (44)
Decreased Behavioral Rigidity (9)
Improved Mental Health (9, 38-40, 42-46, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57-64)

Reduction in Negative Personality Characteristics

Decreased Anxiety (2, 42, 44, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 62, 65)
Decreased Tension (42, 43, 58)
Decreased Neuroticism (43, 45, 51, 59, 62)
Decreased Depression (43, 51, 55)
Decreased Hostility (60, 71)
Decreased Impulsiveness (44, 45)
Decreased Use of Cigarettes (42, 66-70)
Decreased Use of Alcohol (42, 55, 61, 66-69, 72)
Decreased Drug Abuse (43, 66-69, 73)
Decreased Anger in Adolescents (101)
Decreased Absenteeism, Suspension Rates, and School Disciplinary Incidents (103)

Growth of Ideal Social Behavior

Increased Social Maturity (3)
Increased Sociability (44)
Increased Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships (39, 43, 44)
Increased Friendliness (43)
Improved Work and Personal Relationships (42)
Increased Ability to Be Objective, Fair-Minded, and Reasonable (44)
Increased Good Humor (43)
Increased Trust (51)
Increased Tolerance (2, 44)
Growth of a More Sympathetic, Helpful, and Caring Nature (44)
Increased Sensitivity to the Feelings of Others (44)
Improved Interpersonal Behavior of Juvenile Offenders (54)

Benefits in Special Education and Remedial Education

Improvements in Personality Relevant to Learning Disorders in Economically Deprived Adolescents with Learning Problems (53):
    - Increased Independence and Self-Supportiveness
    - Improved Self-Regard
Decreased Dropout Rate from School in Economically Deprived Adolescents with Learning Problems (53)
Improvements Among Children from Low-Income Families (74)
    - Increased Intelligence
    - Improved Self-Concept
Improvements in Autism: Decreased Echolalic Behavior (75)
Benefits for Mentally Retarded Subjects:
    - Improved Social Behavior (76)
    - Improved Cognitive Functioning (76, 77)
    - Increased Intelligence (76, 77)
    - Improved Physical Health (76)
    - Normalization of Neurotransmitter Metabolite and Plasma Cortisol Levels (77)
Decreased Stuttering (78, 79)

Scientific Research References Cited in Text

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